Genetics is the area of biology that studies the beginning of life and evolution of species and explains how biological inheritance is transmitted from generation to generation.
All genetic information and instructions specific to an individual are contained in deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. DNA is made up of units of information, called genes, which are linked to the development of a physiological function.
The human genome includes a total of 25,000 genes. Each of these genes has a specific sequence that allows it to perform its biological function. For this reason, variations in the gene sequence (polymorphisms or mutations) often alter the function of these genes and are related to the development of many diseases. These mutations are transmitted from parents to their offspring, passing diseases from generation to generation.
Knowledge of the sequence of the human genome has revolutionised the field of medicine, as it allows the detection of modifications in the sequence of certain genes responsible for many diseases. This has enabled the development of Genomic Medicine, which recognises the genetic predisposition of an individual to developing common diseases such as diabetes mellitus, asthma, vascular diseases (myocardial infarction, stroke, atherosclerosis), infectious diseases or cancer, among many others. In this way, Genomic Medicine allows for more precise, personalised, and preventive care aimed at avoiding or delaying the onset or development of these diseases, and thus reducing the complications associated with them.
Genomic Medicine also studies pharmacogenetics, i.e., the genetic pattern of an individual related to the tolerance and effect of many drugs, which allows the possibility of developing a much more precise and less costly treatment.